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CSCI 2122代做、c++程序调试

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CSCI 2122代做、c++程序调试

Lab 6: Queues, Stacks, and Binary Trees

CSCI 2122 - Winter 2021

1 Introduction

This lab is designed to introduce you to queues, stacks, and binary trees. By the end of this lab, you will be expected

to understand those concepts. In the next lab we will be expanding your trees to encompass heaps (priority queues)

and we will be using queues and stacks to perform depth-first and breadth-first searches, so it’s important that you

do your best to understand the concepts laid out below.

In this lab you are expected to perform the basics of cloning your Lab 6 repository from the GitLab course group.

A link to the course group can be found here and your repository can be found in the Lab6 subgroup. See the

Lab Technical Document for more information on using git. You will notice that your repository has a file in the

Lab6 directory named delete this file. Due to the limitations of GitLab, we are not able to push completely empty

directories. Before you push your work to your repository (which should be in the Lab6 directory anyway), make

sure to first use the git rm command to remove the extra file. If you do not, your pipeline could fail.

Be sure to read this entire document before starting!

1

2 Queues

A queue is a common data structure which performs operations in a ”first in, first out” order. This is often abbreviated

as FIFO. A common analogy is to imagine that you are in line at the bank. The first person in line will be the first

person served at one of the tellers. In this case, it’s a first come, first served situation where the first ”thing” added

to the queue is also the first thing we work with when the time comes to do some processing.

In this lab, your task will be to implement a queue using any designs or libraries of your own make, including ones

you have written before in this class. The goal is that your queue should be able to hold any reasonable number of

items such that we are able to minimally perform the three basic queue operations: enqueue, dequeue, and peek.

In addition to the three basic queue operations, you’ll also be expected to provide size and contains function.

Your queue will have an initialization function, which should return a pointer to a typedefed struct called Queue

(see the Queue contract for more information). It should start as an array or list (your choice) and should have no

elements in it to start. Similar to previous labs, your queue will hold typeless data in the form of void pointers so

that you don’t have to worry about creating hard-typed queues.

2.1 enqueue

Whenever a user wants to add an item to a queue, they will need to call the enqueue function. The enqueue function

should accept a pointer to a Queue and a pointer to an element, then add that element to one end of its list. This

can be at the start of the list or the end of the list, as long as you are consistent every time. Every time an element

is added, the size of your queue should increase.

2.2 dequeue

Whenever a user wants to retrieve an item from a queue, they will need to call the dequeue function. The dequeue

function should accept a pointer to a Queue, then remove and return the item which has been in the queue the longest

in the form of a void pointer. Every time an element is removed, the size of your queue should decrease. The item

removed should be from the opposite end of the list compared to where you add (enqueue) them.

2.3 peek

A user is allowed to look at whatever the current oldest item is in your queue using the peek function. The peek

function should accept a pointer to a Queue, then return a void pointer representing the item at the front of the

queue, which should be the oldest item. Since the item is not removed, the size of the queue should not change.

2.4 size

The size function should return the number of items remaining in a Queue. It will accept a pointer to a Queue and

return an integer representing the number of items currently in that queue.

2.5 contains

The contains function will accept a pointer to a Queue and a void pointer to an element, then return true if the

element is currently in the queue. If the element is not in the queue, this should return false instead.

2

3 Stacks

Stacks are similar to queues in that they are also arrays/lists which contain some number of items, but instead of

being ”first in, first out” (FIFO), they are set up to be ”last in, first out” (LIFO). You are likely to hear about stacks

often throughout your university career in Computer Science, so now is a great time to get accustomed to how they

work! These instructions are largely similar to queues and will function the same, except in a few areas. We will only

talk about the differences below: assume anything we don’t mention is the same as the queues implementation.

In this lab, your task will be to implement a stack using any designs or libraries of your own make, including ones you

have written before in this class. The goal is that your stack should be able to hold any reasonable number of items

such that we are able to minimally perform the three basic stack operations: push, pop, and peek. In addition to

the three basic stack operations, you’ll also be expected to provide size and contains function.

Your stack will have an initialization function, which should return a pointer to a typedefed struct called Stack (see

the Stack contract for more information). It should start as an array or list (your choice) and should have no elements

in it to start. Similar to previous labs, your stack will hold typeless data in the form of void pointers so that you

don’t have to worry about creating hard-typed queues.

3.1 push

This function is similar to enqueue, except that we generally refer to items as being pushed to the top of the stack.

This can be either end of the list, similar to the queue, as long as you’re consistent.

3.2 pop

This function is similar to dequeue, except that it retrieves an item from the same end of the list at which the elements

are added. This means that whatever item was most recently pushed to the stack is the next item which will be

popped, not the oldest.

3.3 peek

The peek function is similar to the queue’s peek function, except it returns a pointer to the last element pushed to

the stack, not the oldest.

3

4 Binary Trees

Binary trees are a data structure which allows you to create a hierarchy of data by setting some condition on how

the data is stored. In computer science, binary trees are a very important data type as they allow you to store and

search for data quickly by following a relatively short series of steps in order to determine if the data you’re looking

for is present in your collection.

A binary tree can be represented in a number of ways, but in this lab we’re going to use a struct to define the

important components of a binary tree. In later labs we will be expanding on our binary trees to solve more complex

problems (such as priority queues and tree-search methods), but for now we will work with a very basic binary tree

and do some simple searches and traversals so we have an opportunity to learn exactly how they function.

A binary tree is made up a series of nodes (called tree nodes or vertices) and edges. An edge is a path which leads

from one node to another node as they’re joined together. Each node in a binary is allowed to have two such edges

leaving it, thus giving it the binary name. These edges point to other nodes, and the nodes they connect to are known

as the children of the node. A node which is pointing to such a child node is referred to as a parent node. Every

binary tree starts with a single node at the top, referred to as a root node, and traditionally builds downward,

although there’s no reason why you can’t flip it upside down and say it grows upward instead. A tree is technically a

specific type of graph, and you will learn more about graphs in your third year courses, such as Design and Analysis

of Algorithms I.

Since the tree only grows in one direction, we can make a few simple observations. First, a binary tree is directed,

meaning that the edges leaving a node point at other nodes, but those edges are not bi-directional. Thus, when a

node is added, it does not necessarily know who its parent is. There is also a condition such that a binary tree is not

allowed to have a cycle in it. A cycle is a series of edges/nodes such that if you start at some node V and follow

some series of edges, you will arrive back at V . A binary tree is not allowed to do this, and thus you never have to

worry about your nodes circling back around to places you’ve already been when you’re searching.

In the above image, you can see the basic anatomy of an integer-based binary tree. The node at the top (21) is the

root note, as it has no parent nodes. As integers are inserted into the binary tree, they follow a specific pattern for

determining where they should be placed in the tree. When an integer is added, we compare it to the value of the

root node. If it is less than the root node’s stored value, then we should add it on the left side of our tree. If it is

equal to, or greater than, the root node’s value, we should add it to the right side of our tree. For example, if we

wanted to add 13 to this tree, we would see 13 is less than 21, and thus we would want to add it on the left side,

which is referred to as the left subtree. We then compare 13 to 9, and seeing that it’s greater, we want to add it to

9’s right subtree, and then to the left subtree of 16.

In our diagram, we are designating edges to other nodes (pointers) in blue, and edges without nodes (which we can

imagine are null pointers). If we ever get to a point where we’re trying to add something to a subtree which is null,

we create a new node that holds the value we want to insert and update that edge to refer to the new node. In our

above example, 13 would be placed inside a node with two null edges and the left edge of 16’s node would point to

the new 13 node.

If you use some simple logic, you should notice that the integer binary tree actually sorts the values into ranges. For

example, the fact that the 16 is to the left of 21, and to the right of 9 suggests that it must fall in [9, 21], which is

obviously true. This extends to all values in the binary tree. For example, if a node is to the right of 24 and the left

of 33, so it must at least be in the range [24, 33]. In our example binary tree, we can see that the node is 27, and

thus the observation holds. This is an example of the sorting power of a binary tree.

While it’s possible to represent binary trees with just an array, we will be using a struct with pointers to enable us

to practice recursive algorithms. It turns out that from the point of view of a function working on a single node, any

position in the tree can be traversed to similar to the way you iterate through a linked list: by continuously updating

4

a function with the next node so you can perform the same action repeatedly until you arrive at the location you

desire. This is done via recursion and is a powerful tool for operating on tree structures.

4.1 Initializing a Binary Tree

In this lab, binary trees come with two structures: the tree itself and the individual nodes. A tree node consists of

three fields: the data (a void pointer), and a left and right pointer to another tree node. By default, the left and

right pointers of any node are set to null. As a tree grows, these are updated to reflect new nodes being added to the

left and right subtrees of each node. A tree consists of the things you’ve seen before, such as the name of the data

type it holds and the size of that data type. Similar to a linked list, it also holds a starting node so you always have

access to your root node.

In addition to those fields a binary tree will also contain two other variables: a function pointer to a compare

function, and a function pointer to a print function. These will be provided by the user during initialization and will

be used in your code to ensure your binary tree is built properly.

4.2 Inserting Values into a Binary Tree

In this lab, we will focus very simply on creating a binary tree of integers. As such, inserting values should be

relatively simple. First, if your binary tree does not yet have a root node, if you insert a value it can become your

first node. As mentioned above, this means creating a node, adding the data value to it, setting its child (left and

right) pointers to null, then setting it as the root node in the tree struct.

If there is already a root node, you will need to write a simple recursive function to find the correct place to insert

your value. Start at the root node and compare your inserted value to the root node’s value. If the inserted value is

less than the root node’s value, your node should be placed in the left subtree. Otherwise it should be placed in the

right subtree.

Once you have determined which subtree to place it in, you must first make a check to see if the subtree is null. If so,

make a node with the inserted value and have the root node’s correct child pointer point to it. If the subtree is not

null, you can recursively call your insertion function on the node in the designated subtree. Once a node has been

inserted, you can end your function with an appropriate return.

4.3 Searching a Binary Tree

To search a binary tree, we follow the same style of function as outlined above for inserting, with a few minor changes.

First, rather than creating nodes, we are checking to see if a given searched value matches any nodes along the way.

If we ever reach a node where the data in the node matches the data we’re searching for, we return true. However, if

we are searching and end up attempting to follow a subtree which should contain the value, but that subtree is null,

then the value must not exist in our tree, thus we should return false.

4.4 Printing the Values of a Binary Tree

One great feature of an integer-based binary tree is that it will naturally sort all of your data, and do so very quickly.

If you were to imagine reading the values from left-to-right based on their absolute ordering, you would end up with

the numbers printed in smallest-to-largest order. This particular order is referred to as an in-order traversal of the

binary tree, where a traversal is a way of moving from node-to-node in a tree following a specific pattern.

In order to achieve such a result, you can recursively perform a combination of value printing and pointer-following

in order to reach (and print) every node in the binary tree in a particular pattern. To print an in-order node pattern,

you would start at the root node. Recursively print the left subtree of the root node, then print the value of the root

node, then print the right subtree of the root node. If your recursive function is set up properly, you will traverse

and print the tree in the following way:

5

Since the algorithm we have defined only prints each node’s value after the left subtree has been printed, we will get the

values printed in left-to-right order. For this binary tree, that output would be {3, 9, 16, 21, 24, 27, 33, 42}.

There are several types of basic traversals which can be performed on a binary tree, as follows (including the one we

just discussed):

1. In-Order: Prints the state of the tree from left-to-right. Can be performed by recursively printing the left

subtree of a node, printing the node’s value, then recursively printing the right subtree of a node.

2. Pre-Order: Prints the state of the tree such that you print the value of the node, followed by recursively

printing the left subtree, then the right subtree.

3. Post-Order: Prints the state of the tree such that you recursively print the left subtree, followed by resurively

printing the right subtree, followed by printing the value of the node.

4. Reverse-Order: Prints the state of the tree from right-to-left. Performs the in-order operations in reverse.

4.5 The Compare and Print Functions

You may remember that your binary tree stores two function pointers. Because your binary tree relies on the typing of

your tree in order to make comparisons and to print values in traversals, the user initializing the binary tree is required

to pass in a function for comparing two values in the tree, as well as a function which can print a binary tree node value.

The compare function accepts two void pointers and returns an int. It should cast the two pointers to relevant

values, then compare them. It should output the following values based on the state of the values:

1. If the two values are considered equal, return 0.

2. If the second value is larger than the first value (or should appear later), return a value greater than 0.

3. If the second value is smaller than the first value (or should appear sooner), return a value less than 0.

The print function should accept a single void pointer and return nothing. Convert the pointer to an appropriate

value based on the binary tree’s type and print that value to the screen, followed by a single space.

Here, you can see the compare and print functions provided to your binary tree’s initialize function:

1 int compareInt ( void * a , void * b)

2 {

3 return *(( int *) b) - *(( int *) a);

4 }

5

6 void printInt ( void * a)

7 {

8 printf ("%d ", *(( int *) a ));

9 }

4.6 Recursion on Binary Trees

We have explained recursion in previous labs, but can provide some extra tips here for how to handle recursion with

binary trees.

1. Remember that every node in your binary tree is the same as all of the others. This means it should be easy to

treat each node independently and make recursive calls on the children of the current node to continue moving

through the tree. If a function asks for a BinaryTreeNode as a pointer, odds are good we expect you to call

that function on a child node at each recursive step!

2. It is more efficient to test for NULL children in the current node and not recurse on a NULL pointer. This

saves a recursive step and should make your code easier to follow. Whenever possible, only make a recursive

call to a node that you know exists.

3. Remember to use the compare function stored in your tree to decide which child node to check. Creating a

compare function for integers is very simple, as you’re simply returning the difference between integer 2 and

integer 1.

4. Remember to use a return statement in front of your recursive calls when you expect them to be returning a

value. It makes your programs faster if you can make a guarantee to C that the return statement the last thing

a function does.

6

5 Lab 6 Function Contracts

In this lab you will be responsible for fulfilling three lab contracts: the Queue contract, the Stack contract, and the

Binary Tree contract. Each contract is designed to test you on some of the things you’ve learned throughout the

instruction portion of this lab.

All contracts must be completed exactly as the requirements are laid out. Be very careful to thoroughly read the

contract instructions before proceeding. This does not, however, preclude you from writing more functions than you

are asked for. You may write as many additional functions as you wish in your C source files.

All contracts are designed to be submitted without a main function, but that does not mean you cannot write a main

function in order to test your code yourself. It may be more convenient for you to write a C source file with a main

function by itself and take advantage of the compiler’s ability to link files together by accepting multiple source files

as inputs. When you push your code to Gitlab, you don’t need to git add any of your extra main function source files.

The programs you write for this lab will not be compiled with any additional libraries, as they should not be required.

For those of you who are concerned, when deciding which naming conventions you want to use in your code, favour

consistency in style, not dedication to a style that doesn’t work.

The contracts in this document are worth the following points values, for a total of 10.

Contract Points

Queue 3

Stack 3

Binary Tree 4

Total 10

7

5.1 Queue

5.1.1 Problem

You must create a structure and set of functions for managing a queue.

5.1.2 Preconditions

You are required to write a program for handling queues. This consists of queue.c, which should contain all of your

function implementations, and queue.h, which should contain your structure definition, any necessary typedefs, and

all of your forward function declarations. When you compile, you will need to include the source file in your command

in order to ensure the functions exist during the linking process. You may include any additional helper functions as

you see fit. Since you are dealing with pointers, you will need to check all of your pointers to ensure they are not

null. Trying to perform operations on null will lead to segmentation faults or other program crashes at run-time.

Your Queue is a typedeffed structure, but as long as the type works with all of the function contracts listed below,

you’re free to design your struct however you’d like.

The details of the queue functionality are described in the Queue section of this document. The bool type referenced

in this contract is found in <stdbool.h>. You are expected to do basic error checking (such as checking for

null pointers and correct index boundaries).

Your queue program must include the following struct (typedef-ed appropriately):

Structure Name Fields Functionality

Queue (typedef Queue) Any you’d like. Whatever you deem necessary.

Your queue program must include the following functions:

Requirement Conditions

Function Queue* queue initialize(int, char*)

Input Parameters An integer for setting the data type size and a string representing the name of the data

type being stored.

Return Value A pointer to an initialized Queue.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool queue enqueue(Queue*, void*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Queue, and a void pointer to an element.

Return Value True if the element was successfully added to the queue. Otherwise false.

Notes This function should insert the given element at the end of the queue.

Requirement Conditions

Function void* queue dequeue(Queue*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Queue.

Return Value A void pointer to the element that was removed.

Notes This function should remove the element at the front of the queue and return a pointer to it.

Requirement Conditions

Function void* queue peek(Queue*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Queue.

Return Value A void pointer to the element at the front of the queue.

Notes This function should return a pointer to the element at the front of the queue.

Requirement Conditions

Function int queue size(Queue*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Queue.

Return Value An integer representing the number of elements in the queue.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool queue contains(Queue*, void*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Queue and a void pointer to an element.

Return Value True if the given item is in the queue. Otherwise false.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool queue destroy(Queue*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Queue.

Return Value True if the queue is successfully deallocated. Otherwise false.

Notes This function should deallocate any remaining elements and then the queue itself.

5.1.3 Postconditions

Your program should be capable of producing and destroying Queue ( queue) structures. All of the functions should

be capable of executing without crashing. Failure states should be handled by return values. If a function with a

void return type fails, it does not need to be reported.

5.1.4 Restrictions

None.

8

5.1.5 File Requirements

This contract requires you to provide a C source file named queue.c and a C header file named queue.h. Your

header files should contain your forward declarations, struct definitions and typedefs, as well as any library imports

(includes) you may need. Always protect your header with a define guard. Your source files must not contain any

main functions when you submit, or your program will fail during marking.

In addition to the C files, you will also be required to make a Makefile for the queue program. Your program will

be compiled by executing make. Your Makefile should produce both an queue.o file and an queue executable file

by compiling your code with the queueM.o file located in CI/objects/queue.

Your source, header, and make files should be placed in the Lab6/queue/ directory in your GitLab repository.

5.1.6 Testing

To test your code, you can compile your source files with the queueM.o object file found in CI/objects/queue.

Your program can then be executed as normal. The object file contains a main function, so you do not need to

provide your own. Using a Makefile for compiling these files together can save you a lot of time.

5.1.7 Sample Inputs and Outputs

We provide a complete output file, but do not use it for comparison in the pipeline. The main object file for this

program will test your various functions on a Queue. Your code should minimally be able to complete the test main

function in the object file, but you may find it more convenient to test your functions with your own main function

first. Writing your own main function for testing purposes can be extremely helpful.

9

5.2 Stack

5.2.1 Problem

You must create a structure and set of functions for managing a stack.

5.2.2 Preconditions

You are required to write a program for handling stacks. This consists of stack.c, which should contain all of your

function implementations, and stack.h, which should contain your structure definition, any necessary typedefs, and

all of your forward function declarations. When you compile, you will need to include the source file in your command

in order to ensure the functions exist during the linking process. You may include any additional helper functions as

you see fit. Since you are dealing with pointers, you will need to check all of your pointers to ensure they are not

null. Trying to perform operations on null will lead to segmentation faults or other program crashes at run-time.

Your stack will hold a specific data type (and that data type only) as defined by the initialization parameters. The

size of the data type held is provided, as is the name.

The details of the stack functionality are described in the Stacks section of this document. The bool type referenced

in this contract is found in <stdbool.h>. You are expected to do basic error checking (such as checking for null

pointers and correct index boundaries).

Your stack program must include the following struct (typedef-ed appropriately):

Structure Name Fields Functionality

Stack (typedef Stack) Any you’d like. Whatever you deem necessary.

Your stack program must include the following functions:

Requirement Conditions

Function Stack* stack initialize(int, char*)

Input Parameters An integer for setting the data type size and a string representing the name of the data.

Return Value A pointer to an initialized Stack.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool stack push(Stack*, void*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Stack, and a void pointer to an element.

Return Value True if the element was successfully pushed to the stack. Otherwise false.

Notes This function should push the given element to the top of the stack.

Requirement Conditions

Function void* stack pop(Stack*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Stack.

Return Value A void pointer to the element that was popped.

Notes This function should pop an element off the top of the stack and return a pointer to it.

Requirement Conditions

Function void* stack peek(Stack*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Stack.

Return Value A void pointer to the element on the top of the stack.

Notes This function should return a pointer to the element on the top of the stack.

Requirement Conditions

Function int stack size(Stack*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Stack.

Return Value An integer representing the number of elements in the stack.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool stack contains(Stack*, void*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Stack and a void pointer to an element.

Return Value True if the given item is in the stack. Otherwise false.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool stack destroy(Stack*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a Stack.

Return Value True if the stack is successfully deallocated. Otherwise false.

Notes This function should deallocate any remaining elements and then the stack itself.

5.2.3 Postconditions

Your program should be capable of producing and destroying Stack ( Stack) structures. All of the functions should

be capable of executing without crashing. Failure states should be handled by return values. If a function with a

void return type fails, it does not need to be reported.

5.2.4 Restrictions

None.

10

5.2.5 File Requirements

This contract requires you to provide a C source file named stack.c and a C header file named stack.h. Your

header files should contain your forward declarations, struct definitions and typedefs, as well as any library imports

(includes) you may need. Always protect your header with a define guard. Your source files must not contain any

main functions, or your program will fail during marking.

In addition to the C files, you will also be required to make a Makefile for the stack program. Your program will

be compiled by executing make. Your Makefile should produce both a stack.o file and a stack executable file by

compiling your code with the stackM.o file located in CI/objects/stack.

Your source, header, and make files should be placed in the Lab6/stack/ directory in your GitLab repository.

5.2.6 Testing

To test your code, you can compile your source files with the stackM.o object file found in CI/objects/stack. Your

program can then be executed as normal. The object file contains a main function, so you do not need to provide

your own when you submit to GitLab. Using a Makefile for compiling these files together can save you a lot of time.

5.2.7 Sample Inputs and Outputs

A sample output is provided, but is not used in a comparison when executing your pipeline. The main object file

for this program will test your various functions on a stack. Your code should minimally be able to complete the

test main function in the object file, but you may find it more convenient to test your functions with your own main

function first.

11

5.3 Binary Tree

5.3.1 Problem

You must create a structure and set of functions for managing a binary tree.

5.3.2 Preconditions

You are required to write a program for handling binary trees. This consists of bintree.c, which should contain

all of your function implementations, and bintree.h, which should contain your structure definitions, any necessary

typedefs, and all of your forward function declarations. When you compile, you will need to include the source file

in your command in order to ensure the functions exist during the linking process. You may include any additional

helper functions as you see fit. Since you are dealing with pointers, you will need to check all of your pointers to

ensure they are not null. Trying to perform operations on null will lead to segmentation faults or other program

crashes at run-time.

Your binary tree will hold a specific data type (and that data type only) as defined by the initialization parameters.

The size of the data type held is provided, as is the name. Each value stored in the binary tree should be of the given

size in bytes. For example, if your binary is initialized as an int binary tree, then the item size will be 4 and the type

name will be ”int”.

Your binary tree will contain a series of pointers to structs we will call nodes. Nodes contain the data held at that

position in your binary tree, as well as pointers to two child nodes. It is possible for nodes to contain null values for

their pointers depending on the structure of your binary tree, so be careful not to accidentally do any work on null

pointers you don’t intend to.

Whenever a function below inserts or removes data, you will need to create or destroy any nodes as necessary in order

to keep the storage process hidden. This means that elements will be sent into the function and you will be required

to create a node to contain them, while ensuring the various child pointers are managed properly. It is important to

very carefully manage the state of the pointers in your binary tree so that you do not accidentally create cycles or

dangling pointers.

The details of the binary tree functionality are described in the Binary Trees section of this document. The bool

type referenced in this contract is found in <stdbool.h>. You are expected to do basic error checking (such as checking

for null pointers).

You will notice below a variety of functions which begin with an underscore ( ). These functions are meant to be used

interally only (only inside bintree functions) and are not technically meant for regular users to use. Typically these

functions serve as recursive helper functions for the main binary tree functions, in order to make the forward-facing

function list more intuitive while providing an easy interface behind the scenes for recursive functions. During the

marking process, we are likely to test these functions on our own data types to ensure the requirements have been met.

Your bintree program must include the following struct (typedef-ed appropriately):

Structure Name Fields Functionality

BinTreeNode (typedef BinaryTreeNode) void* data The data held by this node.

struct BinTreeNode* left The left child of this node.

struct BinTreeNode* right The right child of this node.

BinaryTree (typedef BinaryTree) BinaryTreeNode* top The root node of this tree.

int itemSize The size of the data type held

by this binary tree in bytes.

char* type The name of the data type held

by this binary tree as a string.

int (*compare)(void*, void*) A pointer to a compare function.

void (*print)(void*) A pointer to a print function.

You may have noticed that the type of the next and prev pointers in the BinaryTreeNode struct are actually struct

BinTreeNode. This is to allow the BinTreeNode structure to contain itself. You won’t be able to easily typedef

the structure before it’s defined, so you have to use struct BinTreeNode to define the pointers. Don’t worry,

however. You can still treat them as a BinaryTreeNode (by name) after the typedef is created.

You will notice there are a lot of functions. About half of them are helper functions, meaning that in practice

there are only about half here that will require any coding! The other half will simply make a function

call to the helper functions. These are designed this way to provide a cleaner interface for the user.

12

Your bintree program must include the following functions:

Requirement Conditions

Function BinaryTree* bintree initialize(int, char*, int (*)(void*, void*), void (*)(void*))

Input Parameters An integer representing a type size, a char pointer representing a type name,

a function pointer to a int(void*,void*) comparison function, and a function

pointer to a void(void*) print function.

Return Value A pointer to an initialized BinaryTree.

Notes This function should create and store a binary tree with the appropriate

fields and a NULL root node.

Requirement Conditions

Function BinaryTreeNode* bintree create node(int, void*)

Input Parameters An integer representing a data size and a void pointer to an element.

Return Value A binary tree node with null child pointers and the data set to match the element.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool bintree insert(BinaryTree*, void*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree and a void pointer representing an element.

Return Value True if the element was inserted successfully. Otherwise false.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool bintree search(BinaryTree*, void*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree and a void pointer representing an element.

Return Value True if the element exists in the binary tree. Otherwise false.

Notes None.

Requirement Conditions

Function void bintree print in order(BinaryTree*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree.

Return Value None.

Notes Print the binary tree following the in-order traversal requirements.

Requirement Conditions

Function void bintree print pre order(BinaryTree*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree.

Return Value None.

Notes Print the binary tree following the pre-order traversal requirements.

Requirement Conditions

Function void bintree print post order(BinaryTree*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree.

Return Value None.

Notes Print the binary tree following the post-order traversal requirements.

Requirement Conditions

Function void bintree print reverse order(BinaryTree*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree.

Return Value None.

Notes Print the binary tree following the reverse-order traversal requirements.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool bintree insert recursive(BinaryTree*, BinaryTreeNode*, void*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree, a pointer to a BinaryTreeNode, and a void pointer

representing an element.

Return Value True if the function successfully inserted the element to the tree. Otherwise false.

Notes This function should be called by the bintree insert function to aid in the

recursive traversal process. This function will do the majority of the inserting.

Requirement Conditions

Function bool bintree search recursive(BinaryTree*, BinaryTreeNode*, void*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree, a pointer to a BinaryTreeNode, and a void pointer

representing an element.

Return Value True if the function successfully finds the element in the tree. Otherwise false.

Notes This function should be called by the bintree search function to aid in the

recursive traversal process. This function will do the majority of the searching.

Requirement Conditions

Function void bintree in order recursive(BinaryTree*, BinaryTreeNode*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree and a pointer to a BinaryTreeNode.

Return Value None

Notes This function should be called by the bintree print in order function to aid in the

recursive traversal process. This function will do the majority of the traversal

and will print the values accordingly.

13

Requirement Conditions

Function void bintree pre order recursive(BinaryTree*, BinaryTreeNode*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree and a pointer to a BinaryTreeNode.

Return Value None

Notes This function should be called by the bintree print pre order function to aid in the

recursive traversal process. This function will do the majority of the traversal

and will print the values accordingly.

Requirement Conditions

Function void bintree post order recursive(BinaryTree*, BinaryTreeNode*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree and a pointer to a BinaryTreeNode.

Return Value None

Notes This function should be called by the bintree print post order function to aid in the

recursive traversal process. This function will do the majority of the traversal

and will print the values accordingly.

Requirement Conditions

Function void bintree reverse order recursive(BinaryTree*, BinaryTreeNode*)

Input Parameters A pointer to a BinaryTree and a pointer to a BinaryTreeNode.

Return Value None

Notes This function should be called by the bintree print reverse order function to aid in the

recursive traversal process. This function will do the majority of the traversal

and will print the values accordingly.

5.3.3 Postconditions

Your program should be capable of producing BinaryTree ( BinaryTree) structures. All of the functions should be

capable of executing without crashing. Failure states should be handled by return values. If a function with a void

return type fails, it does not need to be reported.

During marking, expect the marking script to iterate through the underlying nodes in your BinaryTree struct manually

in order to verify their contents and size.

5.3.4 Restrictions

None.

5.3.5 File Requirements

This contract requires you to provide a C source file named bintree.c and a C header file named bintree.h. Your

header files should contain your forward declarations, struct definitions and typedefs, as well as any library imports

(includes) you may need. Always protect your header with a define guard. Your source files must not contain any

main functions, or your program will fail during marking.

In addition to the C files, you will also be required to make a Makefile for the bintree program. Your program will

be compiled by executing make. Your Makefile should produce both a bintree.o file and a bintree executable file

by compiling your code with the bintreeM.o file located in CI/objects/bintree.

In addition to the regular main object file, there are four additional main object files, one for each type of traversal

function (in, pre, post, rev). Your make file must also compile those main objects with your bintree.o file to produce

the intree, pretree, posttree, and revtree executables. We suggest you set up a target which requires each of

those files to be made, then set up a target for each of them as appropriate. All the main object files are located in

the CI/objects/bintree directory.

Your source, header, and make files should be placed in the Lab6/bintree/ directory in your GitLab repository.

5.3.6 Testing

To test your code, you can compile your source files with the bintreeM.o object file found in CI/objects/bintree.

Your program can then be executed as normal. The object file contains a main function, so you do not need to

provide your own. Using a Makefile for compiling these files together can save you a lot of time.

As mentioned above, you will also need to execute the other main object files found in the CI/objects/bintree

objects directory. Each traversal test file adds 10,000 values to an integer binary tree and then tests a given traversal.

The expected outputs are found in the objects directory and are used to compare against your own outputs to ensure

your traversals are working properly during the pipeline execution.

5.3.7 Sample Inputs and Outputs

All sample outputs are provided in the relevant objects directory. The main object files for this program will test

your various functions on an int binary tree. Your code should minimally be able to complete the test main functions

in the object files, but you may find it more convenient to test your functions with your own main function first.

14

6 Submission

6.1 Required Files

Each file must be contained in the directory listed in the structure requirement diagram below. These files include:

1. queue.c

2. queue.h

3. stack.c

4. stack.h

5. bintree.c

6. bintree.h

7. Makefile (for queue)

8. Makefile (for stack)

9. Makefile (for bintree)

You may submit other files that your Makefile needs to function correctly. Note that the above files

are simply the minimum requirements to pass the pipeline. Any additional files will not count against

you.

6.2 Submission Procedure and Expectations

Your code will be submitted to your Lab 6 GitLab repository using the same method as outlined in the Lab Technical

Document. Refer to that document if you do not remember how to submit files via the GitLab service. A link to

your repository can be found in the Lab6 subgroup of the CSCI 2122 GitLab group here.

As mentioned in the Lab Technical Document, we will provide you with a CI/CD script file which will help you

test your submissions. The .yml file containing the CI/CD test script logic, and any other necessary script files, are

available in your repository at all times. You are free to view any of the script files to help you understand how our

marking scripts will function. We make extensive use of relative path structures for testing purposes, which is why

strict adherence to directory structure and file contents is such a necessity. Also remember to check your pipeline job

outputs on the GitLab web interface for your repository to see where your jobs might be failing.

Remember to follow the instruction guidelines as exactly as possible. Sometimes the pipeline scripts will not test

every detail of your submission. Do not rely on us to perfectly test your code before submission. The

CI/CD pipeline is a great tool for helping you debug major parts of your submissions, but you are still expected to

follow all rules as they have been laid out.

6.3 Submission Structure

In order for a submission to be considered valid, and thus gradable, your git repository must contain directories and

files in the following structure:

Lab6/

queue/

queue.c

queue.h

Makefile

stack/

stack.c

stack.h

Makefile

bintree/

bintree.c

bintree.h

Makefile

As with all labs, accuracy is incredibly important. When submitting any code for labs in this class, you must adhere

to the directory structure and naming requirements in the above diagram. Failure to do so will yield a mark of 0.

That said, in this lab, your directory structure requirement is to minimumally have these files, but you may have

more as you require.

Remember to remove Lab6/delete this file from your repository using git rm to avoid any pipeline failures.

6.4 Marks

This lab is marked out of 10 points. All of the marks in this lab are based on the successful execution of each contract.

Any marking pipeline failures of a given contract will result in a mark of 0 for that contract. Successful completion

of the various contracts will award points based on the following table:

Contract Points

Queue 3

Stack 3

Binary Tree 4

Total 10

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